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第三章 - 比赛规则 | 返回MTR目录 | 第五章 - 比赛违规

MTR 4. 沟通交流

MTR 4.1 Player Communication 牌手之间的沟通

Communication between players is essential to the successful play of any game that involves virtual objects or hidden information. While bluffing may be an aspect of games, there need to be clear lines as to what is, and is not, acceptable for players to say or otherwise represent. This will confirm expectations of both sporting and competitive players during a game.

A player should have an advantage due to better understanding of the options provided by the rules of the game, greater awareness of the interactions in the current game state, and superior tactical planning. Players are under no obligation to assist their opponents in playing the game. Regardless of anything else, players are expected to treat opponents politely and with respect. Failure to do so may lead to Unsporting Conduct penalties.
对游戏规则下可作出的所有选择理解更深刻,对当前游戏状态之间之互动知晓更清楚,对战术规划更充分的牌手自然应在比赛中占有优势。 牌手没有义务协助对手进行游戏。无论如何,牌手都应该以礼貌、尊敬的态度对待对手。做不到这一点的牌手可能会导致「举止违背运动道德」之处罚。

There are four categories of information: status, free, derived and private.

Status information is information that must be announced upon change and physically tracked by the affected player. Methods for tracking must be visible to both players during the match. A shared method is acceptable as long as all players in the match have access to it. At Competitive and Professional REL, methods that can easily be accidentally changed (such as dice) may not be used. Status information consists of:

• Life totals.
• 总生命。
• Counters a player has attached to them.
• 牌手具有之指示物数量。
• Continuous effects with no defined expiration within the game that apply to that player, such as Monarch or City’s Blessing.
• 游戏内影响该牌手,且没有明确终止时限的持续性效应(例如君主或黄金城祝福)。
• Unspent mana in a player’s mana pool.
• 牌手法术力池中未支付的法术力

Free information is information to which all players are entitled access without contamination or omissions made by their opponents. If a player is ever unable or unwilling to provide free information to an opponent that has requested it, he or she should call a judge and explain the situation. Free information consists of:
自由信息指的是所有牌手都有权获取的信息,而不受其对手的隐瞒或遗漏之举动的影响。如果牌手在其对手要求获取自由信息时出现无法或不愿提供该类信息的情况,牌手应该叫裁判过来并解释情况。 自由信息包括:

• Details of current game actions and past game actions that still affect the game state.
• 当前游戏行动,及仍对游戏状态产生影响之过往游戏行动的详情。
• The name of any visible object.
• 可见物件的名称。
• The number and type of any counter that isn’t defined as status information.
• 不属于状态信息规定之指示物的数量和类别
• The state (whether it’s tapped, attached to another permanent, face down, etc.) and current zone of any object or player.
• 物件或牌手当前的状况(是否已横置,是否结附或佩带在其他永久物上,是否牌面朝下等)及当前所在区域。
• The game score of the current match.
• 当前对局的盘数比分。
• The current step and/or phase and which player(s) are active. • 当前所处步骤和/或阶段,以及当前何者为主动牌手。

Derived information is information to which all players are entitled access, but opponents are not obliged to assist in determining and may require some skill or calculation to determine. Derived information consists of:

• The number of any kind of objects present in any game zone that are not defined as free information.
• 在任一游戏区域中,属于任一种类之物件的总数,且未定义为自由信息者。
• All characteristics of objects in public zones that are not defined as free or status information.
• 处于公共区域之中的物件上一切未定义为自由或状态信息的特征。
• Game Rules, Tournament Policy, Oracle content and any other official information pertaining to the current tournament. Cards are considered to have their Oracle text printed on them.
• 与当前比赛有关的游戏规则、比赛方针、Oracle参考文献内容及其他正式信息。牌张视作其上印制的是Oracle参考文献中的叙述。

Private information is information to which players have access only if they are able to determine it from the current visual game state or their own record of previous game actions.

• Any information that is not status, free or derived is automatically private information.
• 一切不属于状态信息、自由信息及推断信息的信息都自动归为私人信息。

The following rules govern player communication:

• Players must announce any changes to status information about themselves and must represent it with a physical designation.
• 牌手必须明确宣告自身状态信息之更动,且以实际动作表示之。
• If a player notices a discrepancy in recorded or announced status information, they are expected to point it out as soon as the discrepancy is noticed.
• 如果牌手发现记录或宣告之状态信息有出入,应在注意到有关差异时即刻指出。
• Players must answer all questions asked of them by a judge completely and honestly, regardless of the type of information requested. Players may request to do so away from the match.
• 牌手必须完整、诚实地回答裁判问他的所有问题。牌手可以要求在私下里进行回答。
• Players may not represent derived, free, or status information incorrectly.
• 牌手不得错误表示推断、自由或状态信息。
• Players must answer completely and honestly any specific questions pertaining to free information.
• 牌手必须完整、诚实地回答关于自由信息的特定问题。
• At Regular Rules Enforcement Level, all derived information is instead considered free.
• 在执法严格度为一般级别的情况下,所有的推断信息都改为视作「自由信息」。

Judges are encouraged to help players in determining free and status information but must avoid assisting players with derived information about the game state.

MTR 4.2 Tournament Shortcuts 比赛中的行事简化

A tournament shortcut is an action taken by players to skip parts of the technical play sequence without explicitly announcing them. Tournament shortcuts are essential for the smooth play of a game, as they allow players to play in a clear fashion without getting bogged down in the minutiae of the rules. Most tournament shortcuts involve skipping one or more priority passes to the mutual understanding of all players; if a player wishes to demonstrate or use a new tournament shortcut entailing any number of priority passes, he or she must be clear where the game state will end up as part of the request.
比赛中的行事简化是牌手采取的一组动作,以在不需明确说明的情况下,略过正常游戏行事顺序的某些部分。简化可使牌手进行游戏时步调清晰,无需为规则的细微定义束手束脚,因而对游戏的顺当进行至关重要。 大多数比赛中的行事简化是以双方都能理解的方式,来略过「让过一个或多个优先权」的行为表示; 如果有牌手想要做出或使用一种新的简化方式来让过任意数目的优先权,则该牌手必须在进行提出新的简化时明确表示最终游戏状态会到达何处。

A player may interrupt a tournament shortcut by explaining how he or she is deviating from it or at which point in the middle he or she wishes to take an action. A player may interrupt his or her own shortcut in this manner. A player is not allowed to use a previously undeclared tournament shortcut, or to modify an in-use tournament shortcut without announcing the modification, in order to create ambiguity in the game.
牌手可通过说明自己之简化与通用简化方式不同之处,或表明在此简化的过程中自己想要采取行动之时机等方式,来中断比赛简化的执行。牌手亦可以依此方式来中断自身行事简化的进行。 牌手不得利用以下方式来混淆游戏进程:使用此前未宣告的简化方式;擅自变动通用的比赛简化方式且不事先声明变动之处。

A player may not request priority and take no action with it. If a player decides he or she does not wish to do anything, the request is nullified and priority is returned to the player that originally had it.

During the resolution of one of their spells or abilities, a player may not assume their opponent has taken a shortcut. They must seek confirmation that a choice with no visible impact was taken.

Certain conventional tournament shortcuts used in Magic are detailed below. They define a default communication; if a player wishes to deviate from these, he or she should be explicit about doing so. Note that some of these are exceptions to the policy above in that they do cause non-explicit priority passes.
一些在万智牌比赛中常见的行事简化如下详述。 以下即为规定之默认交流含义;如果牌手想要采取的简化方式与下列叙述有相异之处,则需要明确说明。 注意,下列的简化中有些会导致未明说的优先权让过,属于上述方针的例外情形。

• If the active player passes priority with an empty stack during their first main phase, the non-active player is assumed to be acting in beginning of combat unless they are affecting whether a beginning of combat ability triggers. Then, after those actions resolve or no actions took place, the active player receives priority at the beginning of combat. Beginning of combat triggered abilities (even ones that target) may be announced at this time.
• 如果主动牌手在其战斗前的行动阶段于堆叠为空时让过优先权, 则除了非主动牌手之行动会影响在战斗开始时触发之异能是否触发的情况之外,均认为非主动牌手是在战斗开始步骤中行事。 在这些动作结算,或牌手表示无行动之后,由主动牌手在战斗开始步骤获得优先权。 在战斗开始时触发的异能(包括具目标者)可在此时宣告。
• If the active player passes priority with an empty stack during their second main phase, or uses a phrase such as “Go” or “Your Turn” at any time, the non-active player is assumed to be acting in the end step unless they are affecting how or whether an end of turn ability triggers. End of turn triggered abilities that do not target resolve after the non-active player passes priority.
• 如果主动牌手在其战斗后的行动阶段于堆叠为空时让过优先权,或在任何时候说出「过」、「到你」之类的表述,则除了非主动牌手之所为会对在结束步骤时触发之异能是否触发或触发方式产生影响的情况外,均认为非主动牌手是在结束步骤中行事。 对于不具目标,且在回合结束时触发的异能而言,此类异能会在非主动牌手让过优先权后结算。
• Whenever a player adds an object to the stack, he or she is assumed to be passing priority unless he or she explicitly announces that he or she intends to retain it.
• 每当牌手将物件加入堆叠时,除了明确宣告打算保有优先权之情况外,均视为其会让过优先权。
• If a player adds a group of objects to the stack without explicitly retaining priority, he or she is assumed to be adding them to the stack individually and allowing each to resolve before adding the next. If another player wishes to take an action at a point in the middle of this sequence, the actions should be reversed to that point.
• 如果牌手将一系列的物件加入了堆叠,但未明确宣告自己要保有优先权,则认为其是逐一将该些物件加入堆叠,且是待先加入者完成结算后再加入后续物件。如果其他牌手想要在此一系列动作过程中的某一时点采取行动,则应将此系列动作倒回至该时点。
• If a player casts a spell or activates an ability and announces choices for it that are not normally made until resolution, the player must adhere to those choices unless an opponent responds to that spell or ability. If an opponent inquires about choices made during resolution, that player is assumed to be passing priority and allowing that spell or ability to resolve.
• 如果有牌手在施放咒语或起动异能时,宣告了通常是在结算时才需作出的选择,则除非对手对该咒语或异能有所响应,否则该牌手便不得改变此选择。若对手就结算时才需作出的选择进行询问,则认为该牌手让过优先权并允许咒语结算。
• A player is assumed to have paid any cost of 0 unless he or she announces otherwise.
• 未加特别说明时,认为牌手已支付所有的{零}费用。
• A player who casts a spell or activates an ability that targets an object on the stack is assumed to target the legal spell closest to the top of the stack unless the player specifies otherwise.
• 对于以堆叠上的物件当作目标的咒语或异能,认为其所指定的目标是最为靠近堆叠顶的合法咒语,有特别说明的情况除外。
• A player is assumed to be attacking another player with his or her creatures and not any planeswalkers that player may control unless the attacking player specifies otherwise.
• 未加特别说明时,认为进攻牌手生物的进攻对象为其他牌手,而非后者可能操控的鹏洛客。
• A player who does not scry/surveil (or look at the top card of the library after taking a mulligan) when instructed to is assumed to have not looked and chosen to leave the cards in the same order.
• 在有效应要求其进行占卜/刺探(或在再调度完成后检视牌库顶牌)时并未如此作的牌手,认为其未检视相应牌张,并将其以相同顺序留在原处。
• In the Two-Headed Giant format, attacking creatures are assumed to be attacking the head of the defending player sitting directly across from their controller, unless the creature's controller specifies otherwise.
• 在双头巨人赛制中,进攻生物的操控者未加特别说明时,认为进攻生物攻击的是坐在其操控者正对面之防御牌手。

MTR 4.3 Out-of-Order Sequencing 次序不当的行事顺序

Due to the complexity of accurately representing a game of Magic, it is acceptable for players to engage in a block of actions that, while technically in an incorrect order, arrive at a legal and clearly understood game state once they are complete.

All actions taken must be legal if they were executed in the correct order, and any opponent can ask the player to do the actions in the correct sequence so that he or she can respond at the appropriate time (at which point players will not be held to any still-pending actions).

An out-of-order sequence must not result in a player prematurely gaining information which could reasonably affect decisions made later in that sequence.
有的信息极有可能会对位于当前行事顺序稍后之决定产生影响,牌手不得藉由自己行事次序不当来提前获知此类信息。 牌手不得试图利用对手对自己次序不当的行事顺序中任何部分之反应,来判断自己是否需要修正行动或执行额外的行动。牌手亦不得利用次序不当的行事顺序试图回过头来执行自己错过了的、本应在适当的时间执行的行动。总而言之,在执行完一系列动作之后的短暂停顿即为该系列行动已全部完成的表示,行事顺序已执行完毕,游戏已前进到该顺序末尾后的适当时点。

Examples 示例

  1. A player discards a card to pay for Masticore’s upkeep cost before untapping his or her land. 牌手在重置地之前为异狮/Masticore 的维持费用弃掉了一张牌。
  2. A player resolves Harrow and puts the card into his or her graveyard, then searches. 牌手结算整地/Harrow 时,先是把牌放进了坟墓场后才开始搜索牌库。
  3. While resolving Restore Balance, a player discards before sacrificing lands and creatures. 在结算恢复均势/Restore Balance 时,牌手先弃掉了牌后才开始牺牲地和生物。
  4. A player with two creatures being put into the graveyard due to state-based actions resolves the leaves-the-battlefield triggered ability on one of them before putting the other creature in the graveyard. 当牌手操控的两个生物因为状态动作要被置入坟墓场时,该牌手先行结算了其中一个生物的离战场触发式异能之后才把另一个生物放进坟墓场。
  5. A player declares a blocker, animates a Treetop Village, and then attempts to block with that Treetop Village. 牌手宣告了一个阻挡者之后,然后再起动树顶村落/Treetop Village 的异能准备用其进行阻挡。


MTR 4.4 Loops 重复动作

A loop is a form of tournament shortcut that involves detailing a sequence of actions to be repeated and then performing a number of iterations of that sequence. The loop actions must be identical in each iteration and cannot include conditional actions (“If this, then that”.)

If no players are involved in maintaining the loop, each player in turn order chooses a number of iterations to perform before they will take an action to break the loop or that they wish to take no action. If all players choose to take no action, the game is a draw. Otherwise, the game advances through the lowest number of iterations chosen and the player who chose that number takes an action to break the loop.

If one player is involved in maintaining the loop, they choose a number of iterations. The other players, in turn order, agree to that number or announce a lower number after which they intend to intervene. The game advances through the lowest number of iterations chosen and the player who chose that number receives priority.

If two or more players are involved in maintaining a loop within a turn, each player in turn order chooses a number of iterations to perform. The game advances through the lowest number of iterations chosen and the player who chose that number receives priority.

Loops may span multiple turns if a game state is not meaningfully changing. Note that drawing cards other than the ones being used to sustain the loop is a meaningful change. If two or more players are involved in maintaining a loop across turns, each player chooses a number of iterations to perform, or announces their intent to continue indefinitely. If all players choose to continue indefinitely, the game is a draw. Otherwise, the game advances through the lowest number of iterations chosen and the player who chose that number receives priority at the point they stop taking an action to sustain the loop.

A player intervening during a loop may specify that one iteration of the loop is only partly performed in order to be able to take action at the appropriate point. If they do, the final iteration is only performed up to the chosen point.

Non-deterministic loops (loops that rely on decision trees, probability or mathematical convergence) may not be shortcut. A player attempting to execute a nondeterministic loop must stop if at any point during the process a previous game state (or one identical in all relevant ways) is reached again. This happens most often in loops that involve shuffling a library.

Some loops are sustained by choices rather than actions. In these cases, the rules above may be applied, with the player making a different choice rather than ceasing to take an action. The game moves to the point where the player makes that choice. If the choice involves hidden information, a judge may be needed to determine whether any choice is available that will not continue the loop.

The judge is the final arbiter of what constitutes a loop. A player may not 'opt-out' of shortcutting a loop, nor may they make irrelevant changes between iterations in an attempt to make it appear as though there is no loop. Once a loop has been shortcut, it may not be restarted until the game has changed in a relevant way. Proposing loops as an effort to use up time on the clock is Stalling.

MTR 4.5 Triggered Abilities 触发式异能

Players are expected to remember their own triggered abilities; intentionally ignoring one is Cheating. Players are not required to point out the existence of triggered abilities that they do not control, though they may do so if they wish.

Triggered abilities are considered to be forgotten by their controller once they have taken an action past the point where the triggered ability would have an observable impact on the game. Triggered abilities that are forgotten are not considered to have gone onto the stack. How forgotten triggered abilities are subsequently handled is defined by the Rules Enforcement Level of the tournament.
只要触发式异能的操控者错过该触发在原本对游戏造成显著影响的时点并执行了其他动作,便视作该牌 手已遗漏了这个触发式异能。 遭遗漏的触发式异能不应视为此异能已进入堆叠。遭遗忘之触发式异能的后续处理方式由比赛的执法严格度确定。

MTR 4.6 Team/Two-Headed Giant Communication 团队/双头巨人比赛中的交流

Members of the same team may communicate between one another except during times where explicitly prohibited by the team format rules. However, team members that have an opportunity to acquire hidden information (e.g. by speaking to spectators following their own match while a teammate is still playing), are restricted from communicating with teammates for the duration of that match.
除了团队赛制规则中明订之禁止交流时段外,同属一支队伍的各成员可在队员之间以口头方式进行交流。 然而,有机会获取了私人信息的队员(例如,通过在自己的游戏结束后通过与旁观者的交流而得,此时他仍有队友在进行游戏)在该盘对局进行的过程中受到不得与队友交流的限制。

Prohibitions against written notes of any kind during drafts apply to team drafts as well.

MTR 4.7 Game Layout 游戏用具摆放

Players in Competitive and Professional Rules Enforcement Level matches must arrange their cards, tokens, and other accessories on the battlefield using the following layout:

• From the player’s perspective, nonlands must be kept closer to the player’s opponent than lands, and no non-land cards should be between the land area and the edge of the table closest to the player.
• 从牌手的视角来看,非地永久物应比地永久物更靠近对手,且在地牌摆放的区域与该牌手所坐一侧的桌边之间不得摆放任何非地牌。
• Non-creature permanents whose use may reasonably be associated with either the land or nonland area (e.g. an artifact whose only ability is a mana ability) may be located in either area, provided the overall layout is, in the judgment of tournament officials, clear. However, permanents that are also creatures (e.g. artifacts with March of the Machines on the battlefield, Dryad Arbor, or a Treetop Village that is currently a creature) must be placed in the nonland area. Players may not use other cards to intentionally obscure the presence of a permanent in any area of the battlefield.
• 对于非生物永久物而言,若其用途与地区域或非地区域有合理联系(例如仅有法术力异能的神器),则此永久物便可放在对应区域,但此摆放以比赛工作人员判断确属清晰为限。然而,若该永久物同时也为生物(例如战场上有器械进击/Match of the Machines时的神器,树灵乔木/Dryad Arbor,或当前是生物的树顶村落/Treetop Village),则其必须摆放在非地区域。牌手不得使用其他牌来故意遮挡战场上任何区域的永久物。
• Each card should remain clearly associated with any permanents attached to it. For example, an Aura enchanting a land should be in the land area in contact with that land.
• 在牌张和与之贴附的永久物之间需始终展现清晰的关联关系。举例来说,结附于某张地的灵气,便需置于地区域,与所结附的地保持接触。
• The player’s library, graveyard, and exiled cards should be kept all to the left of the battlefield or all to the right of the battlefield at the player’s discretion.
• 牌手放置牌库、坟墓场和所放逐之牌此三个区域需一致放在战场的左侧或右侧。牌手可自行决定是要将此三个区域一致放在左侧还是右侧。
• The player’s graveyard and exiled cards should be adjacent to the player’s library. All three should be distinct at all times.
• 牌手放置坟墓场和所放逐之牌此两个区域须与牌手放置牌库的区域相邻。且这三个区域之间须始终具有明显区隔。
• If a card is exiled by a permanent and that permanent includes a way to perform additional actions with the exiled card, the association of the two cards must be clear. Keeping the two cards together is recommended.
• 如果某张牌遭某个永久物放逐,且该永久物有方法利用所放逐的牌执行额外动作,则应以能够清晰展示此两者之间这类联系的方式摆放两者。在此建议将此两张牌放在一起。
• Each untapped permanent should face its controller. Players are permitted to briefly turn a card upside-down as a memory aid.
• 所有的未横置永久物都应朝向其操控者。允许牌手暂时倒转牌张协助记忆。

Physical objects used to represent permanents must have a way of clearly representing any in-game status, such as whether a permanent is tapped. Sleeves or card backs that appear similar to any player’s sleeves or card backs may not be used. The Head Judge is the final authority on what may be used to represent permanents.
使用标记物来表示游戏中组件(例如永久物)的牌手必须使该标记物能清楚表示一切游戏中的状态,如该永久物是否已横置。 外观类似于参与对局之牌手的牌套或牌背不得用作标记物。 主审对能用何种物品来表示永久物有最终裁定权。

Tournament officials may make exceptions or additions to these guidelines at their sole discretion in order to keep each player’s game layout clear. Players in exceptional situations (e.g. a player playing a deck with no lands or a deck that makes significant use of the graveyard) should consult with tournament officials to determine what allowances, if any, will be made.

MTR 4.8 Reversing Decisions 反悔

Players are expected to consider their options before taking an action and players are not usually allowed to take back an action that has been communicated to their opponent, either verbally or physically.

Sometimes, a player will realize that they have made a wrong decision after making a play. If that player has not gained any information since taking the action and they wish to make a different decision, a judge may allow that player to change their mind. Judges must carefully consider whether the player has gained information since making the play that might have affected the decision; in particular, players may not try to use opponent reactions (or lack thereof) to see if they should modify actions they committed to. If the judge cannot be sure no information was gained, they should not allow the decision to be changed.

Teammates intervening before information has been gained is acceptable when considering a backup.


• 1. A player plays an Island and, before anything else happens, says “Sorry, I meant to play a Swamp.”
• 1. 牌手使用了海岛,但在任何人有动作前就说「抱歉,我想用的是沼泽。」
• 2. A player says “No blocks” immediately followed by “Wait, no, I block with this creature.”
• 2. 牌手说了「不阻挡」后立刻跟着说「等等,我要挡这个生物。」
• 3. A player says “Go. Wait, land, go.”
• 3. 牌手说「过。等等,下地,过。」