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第二章 - 比赛的各项机制 | 返回MTR目录 | 第四章 - 沟通交流

MTR 3. 比赛规则

MTR 3.1 Tiebreakers 同分处理

The following tiebreakers are used to determine how a player ranks in a tournament:
在比赛中,依次采用下述的同分处理来决定牌手在本次比赛中的名次情况:

  1. Match points 对局积分
  2. Opponents’ match-win percentage 对手局胜率
  3. Game-win percentage 盘胜率
  4. Opponents’ game-win percentage 对手盘胜率

Definitions of these tiebreakers can be found in Appendix C. Not all of these tiebreakers may be used in formats with single-game matches.
上述同分处理之定义可于附录C中找到。若某种赛制在每局对局中只有一盘游戏,则并非上述所有的同分处理都会在该类比赛中使用。

MTR 3.2 Format and Ratings Categories 赛制及积分排名种类

Wizards of the Coast sanctions the following rated formats as individual, three-person team, or Two-Headed Giant tournaments:
威世智公司认证下列积分赛制,受认证的比赛可采用单人赛、三人团队赛,或是双头巨人赛等形式:

Constructed Formats 构组赛制

• Standard 标准赛
• Modern 近代赛

Eternal Constructed Formats 经典构组赛制

• Vintage 特选赛
• Legacy 薪传赛

Limited Formats 限制赛制

• Sealed Deck 现开赛
• Booster Draft (individual and Two-Headed Giant only) 补充包轮抽(仅限个人赛和双头巨人赛)
• Rochester Draft (three-person team only) 罗彻斯特轮抽(仅限三人团队赛)

Wizards of the Coast maintains the following Planeswalker Points rating categories:
威世智公司持续统计下列鹏洛客分数积分排名类别的分数:

• Lifetime 终身
• Yearly 年度
• Professional 专业

A player that is disqualified from a tournament does not receive Planeswalker Points for that tournament.
被从比赛中取消资格的牌手不会获得该场比赛之鹏洛客分数。

For complete information about Planeswalker Points, visit the Planeswalker Points website at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/PlaneswalkerPoints
欲知「鹏洛客分数」的完整信息,请访问鹏洛客分数网站,地址为:http://www.wizards.com/Magic/PlaneswalkerPoints

MTR 3.3 Authorized Cards 认可牌张

Players may use any Authorized Game Cards from Magic: The Gathering expansions, core sets, special sets, supplements, and promotional printings. Authorized Game Cards are cards that, unaltered, meet the following conditions:
牌手可使用出自万智牌扩充系列、核心系列、特殊系列、补充版及推广印次中的「认可游戏牌张」。所谓「认可游戏牌张」,系指未遭变造,且符合下列所有条件的牌:

• The card is genuine and published by Wizards of the Coast
• 该牌为威世智公司出版的正版卡牌。
• The card has a standard Magic back, is a double-faced card, or is a card that is part of a meld pair.
• 该牌具标准万智牌牌背,为双面牌,或是一组融合牌之一部分。
• The card does not have squared corners.
• 该牌边角不为正方形。
• The card is not a token card.
• 该牌不为衍生物牌。
• The card is not damaged or modified in a way that might make it marked.
• 该牌未遭损毁,或未以会被视为标记牌的方式进行过加工。
• The card is otherwise legal for the tournament as defined by the format.
• 该牌为在相应赛制中规定可用的牌。

The Head Judge of a tournament may issue a proxy (see section 3.4) for a card that has become worn or damaged during the tournament. Any other cards that are not Authorized Game Cards are prohibited in all sanctioned tournaments.
比赛主审可为在比赛过程中磨损或损坏的牌张制作代牌(参见第3.4节)。不属于「认可游戏牌张」的其他牌张均禁止在所有认证赛中使用。 其他非授权牌张不得在任何认证比赛中使用。

Players may use cards from the Alpha printing only if the deck is in opaque sleeves.
牌手只有在整副套牌都装在不透明的牌套中的情况下,才可以使用来自Alpha版本印次的牌。

Silver-bordered cards may only be used in casual events and only when the format explicitly permits them.
银色边框的牌张只有在休闲赛事中、相关赛制明确允许使用的情况下方得使用。

Players may use otherwise-legal non-English and/or misprinted cards provided they are not using them to create an advantage by using misleading text or pictures. Official promotional textless spells are allowed in sanctioned Magic tournaments in which they would otherwise be legal.
非英语版本和/或具有印刷错误的卡牌上面具有误导性的文字或插画,但只要该牌符合其他使用要求,且牌手并非刻意利用此点带来优势,便可以使用。一系列正式发行的无内文咒语赠牌,在符合其他使用要求的情况下,可以在万智牌认证比赛中使用。

Artistic modifications are acceptable in sanctioned tournaments, provided that the modifications do not make the card art unrecognizable, contain substantial strategic advice, or contain offensive images. Artistic modifications also may not obstruct or change the mana cost or name of the card.
在牌面上进行过艺术加工的牌可以在认证比赛中使用,但需保证此类加工:不会使得该牌上面的插画变得无法识别;未含有隐性的战术指导信息;未含有侮辱性的图像。艺术加工不得遮挡或更改牌张的法术力费用或名称。

The Head Judge is the final authority on acceptable cards for a tournament. If a player is required to replace a card in his or her deck and is unable to find a replacement, the player may replace the card with a card named Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, or Forest of his or her choice. This also applies to cards that are lost and must be replaced to have a legal deck.
主审拥有最终决定确定何种牌能在比赛中使用的权利。 如果在裁判要求某位牌手更换其套牌中的某张牌时,该牌手无法找到替代品,该牌手可以自行选择一张基本地牌(仅限名称为平原、海岛、沼泽、山脉或树林者)来替换该牌。此规则同样适用于牌手弄丢牌张而须更换以确保套牌合法的情形。

MTR 3.4 Proxy Cards 代牌

A proxy card is used during competition to represent an otherwise legal Magic card or checklist card that can no longer be included in a deck without the deck being marked. For a proxy to be issued, the card it is replacing must meet at least one of the following criteria:
代牌指在比赛过程中用以代表符合规定之万智牌牌张或列表牌的用具。当在套牌中使用原本牌张会导致套牌出现明显标记的情况下,便可用代牌来代替之。可使用代牌来代替之牌张,须至少满足以下条件之一:

• The card has been accidentally damaged or excessively worn in the current tournament, including damaged or misprinted Limited product. Proxies are not allowed as substitutes for cards that their owner has damaged intentionally or through negligence.
• 该牌在当前比赛中被意外损毁或遭受过量磨损(包括遭损毁或具有印刷错误的限制赛用产品)。不得用代牌来代替拥有者出于故意或疏忽而损毁之牌张。
• The card is a foil card for which no non-foil printing exists.
• 该牌是闪卡,且非发行过该牌之普通版本。

Players may not create their own proxies; they may only be created by the Head Judge who has sole discretion as to whether the creation of a proxy is appropriate. When a judge creates a proxy, it is included in the player’s deck and must be denoted as a proxy in a clear and conspicuous manner. The original card is kept nearby during the match and replaces the proxy while in a public zone as long as it is recognizable. A proxy is valid only for the duration of the tournament in which it was originally issued.
牌手不得自己制作代牌;是否应当制作代牌,由主审自身判断为准,且只能由主审来制作。当裁判为牌手制作代牌时,将此牌放进该牌手的套牌中,且必须以清晰明了的方式表明此为代牌。原本那张牌便在对局进行过程中放在一旁备用。当代牌在公开区域当中时,只要它一直处于可被辨识的状态内,便使用原本的牌来替代。代牌只可在原本制作此张代牌的比赛中使用。

MTR 3.5 Checklist Cards 列表牌

Official checklist cards are used to represent double-faced cards in the sets that contain them. Only official checklist cards may be used to represent double-faced cards in a deck.
正式列表牌用于代表含有双面牌之系列中的该类牌张。只有正式的列表牌才能用于代表套牌里的双面牌。

The use of checklist cards is required if a player has double-faced cards in his or her deck and is not using completely opaque sleeves.
如果牌手在其套牌中使用了双面牌,且并未使用完全不透明的牌套,则该牌手必须使用列表牌。

If a player uses a checklist card to represent a double-faced card in his or her deck, then all copies of that double- faced card in the deck must be represented by checklist cards, and any copies of that double-faced card in a hidden zone are considered to not exist for purposes of determining deck legality.
如果牌手决定使用列表牌来代表其套牌中的某张双面牌,则其套牌中所有与该牌同名的其他牌张都必须用列表牌来代表。此时,在判定套牌是否合乎规则时,所有处于非公开区域中具该名称的双面牌均视作不存在。

Each individual checklist card used must have one (and only one) of the items checked.
每张所使用的列表牌上都必须有一项(也仅能有一项)作了标记。

A checklist card is only used while the card it represents is in a hidden zone. The card represented by a checklist card is not a playable Magic card until the checklist card has been placed in a public zone. Multiple checklists cannot be used to represent a single copy of the actual card. For each checklist card used, the player must have a copy of the actual card available, though they are not considered sideboard cards and are not presented to their opponent.
仅当需代表的牌处于非公开区域中的时候,才会使用列表牌来代表之。列表牌所代表的卡牌,只有在代表它的列表牌置于公共区域之后,才属于可在游戏中使用的万智牌卡牌。不得使用多张列表牌来代表同一张实际卡牌。牌手需为其使用的每一张列表牌准备一张相对应的实际卡牌,但所准备的这些实际卡牌不算做其备牌,亦不需呈视于对手。

MTR 3.6 Card Identification and Interpretation 牌张确认与牌张解释

A card is considered named in game when a player has provided a description (which may include the name or partial name) that could only apply to one card. Any player or judge realizing a description is still ambiguous must seek further clarification.
当牌手作出能够唯一确定某张牌的描述(包括说出全部或部分名称)时,便视为说出了该牌的名称。若牌手或裁判觉得所说描述无法唯一确定牌张,便须要求对方进一步说明。

Players have the right to request access to the official wording of a card they can describe. That request will be honored if logistically possible. The official text of any card is the Oracle text corresponding to the name of the card. Players may not use errors or omissions in Oracle to abuse the rules. The Head Judge is the final authority for card interpretations, and he or she may overrule Oracle if an error is discovered.
牌手拥有要求查阅牌张标准叙述之权利,只是该牌手须能描述出该牌。如实际可行,便可准予牌手查阅。 牌张的规则文字以该牌在Oracle牌张参考文献中所对应的文字叙述为标准。 牌手不得利用Oracle中的错误或遗漏来滥用规则。主审是所有牌张解释的最终裁决者,当发现Oracle有错误时,主审的判决高于Oracle。

MTR 3.7 New Releases 新发售

Newly released card sets become tournament legal for sanctioned, rated tournaments on the following dates:
自下述日期起,新发售的系列便可以在认证比赛中使用:

• Ravnica Allegiance™ January 25, 2019 效忠拉尼卡 2019年1月25日

For official Prerelease tournaments only, new sets are legal for use before the official format legal date. In these cases, any announced rules updates shall be in effect at these tournaments, including informal explanations of new rules and mechanics. Judges may apply additional rules that they believe will be updated. 新系列仅于正式举办的售前比赛当中可于上述的日期之前使用。如属于此种情况,则所有已公告之规则订正(包括针对新规则和机制的非正式说明)均适用于该场比赛。若裁判认为在此之外还会有其他规则订正,也可在该场比赛中适用这类订正。

These dates may be subject to change. Any changes will be announced at http://www.magicthegathering.com.
这些日期有可能变动。如有变动,则会公告于此网址:http://www.magicthegathering.com。

MTR 3.8 Game Markers 游戏标记物

Small items (e.g. glass beads) may be used as markers and placed on top of a player’s own library or graveyard as a reminder for in-game effects. These markers may not disguise the number of cards remaining in that zone nor completely obscure any card.
牌手可将一些小型物件(如玻璃珠)用作标记物放在自己的牌库或坟墓场顶上,以提醒自己注意游戏区中的效应。这些标记物不能用来隐瞒在该区域中的牌数,亦不得将该区域的任意牌张完全遮盖。

Players using markers to represent in-game components (e.g. permanents) must have a way of clearly representing any in-game status, such as whether a permanent is tapped. Sleeves or card backs that appear similar to any player’s sleeves or card backs may not be used as markers. A tournament official may disallow the use of game markers that can cause confusion or that are deemed inappropriate or offensive.
使用标记物来表示游戏中组件(例如永久物)的牌手必须使该标记物能清楚表示一切游戏中的状态,如该永久物是否已横置。 外观类似于参与对局之牌手的牌套或牌背不得用作标记物。 如果游戏标记物可能使人误解游戏状态,或被认定为不合适的或具冒犯性质的,比赛工作人员可禁止该类游戏标志物的使用。

MTR 3.9 Card Shuffling 洗牌

Decks must be randomized at the start of every game and whenever an instruction requires it. Randomization is defined as bringing the deck to a state where no player can have any information regarding the order or position of cards in any portion of the deck. Pile shuffling may not be performed other than once at the beginning of a game to count the cards in the deck.
在每盘游戏开始时,或是在有指示要求的情况下,牌手必须将自己的套牌随机化。「随机化」的定义为:「将套牌调整为随机状态的过程;调整过后的套牌内任意部分牌张的排列次序,或是其中某张牌具体位置这类的信息无从为任何牌手所知晓」。 分堆洗法属于清点套牌张数的方法,只能在每盘游戏开始时为此目的使用一次。

Once the deck is randomized, it must be presented to an opponent. By this action, players state that their decks are legal and randomized. The opponent may then shuffle it additionally. Cards and sleeves must not be in danger of being damaged during this process. If the opponent does not believe the player made a reasonable effort to randomize his or her deck, the opponent must notify a judge. Players may request to have a judge shuffle their cards rather than the opponent; this request will be honored only at a judge’s discretion.
一旦牌手将自己的套牌随机化后,必须将自己的套牌呈交给对手。通过这一动作,牌手便表明自己的套牌是合乎规定,且已随机化。对手可以对其进行额外的洗牌。在此过程中,不得对牌张和牌套做出有可能将之损毁的举动。 如果该位对手认为牌手并未尽力使套牌充分随机化,他须就此告知裁判。 双方牌手皆拥有请求裁判来代替自己的对手为自己洗牌的权利;但裁判可自行决定是否要为牌手洗牌。

If a player has had the opportunity to see any of the card faces of the deck being shuffled, the deck is no longer considered randomized and must be randomized again.
在洗牌过程中,若牌手得以看到套牌中任意牌张的牌面,便不会认为该套牌「已随机化」,牌手必须将之重新随机化。

At Competitive and Professional Rules Enforcement Level tournaments, players are required to shuffle their opponents’ decks after their owners have shuffled them. The Head Judge can require this at Regular Rules Enforcement Level tournaments as well.
在「竞争」和「专业」级别的比赛中,每盘游戏开始之前,牌手必须在对手洗完牌之后,为对手的套牌进行洗牌。主审也可以在「一般」级别的比赛中规定必须洗对手的套牌。

MTR 3.10 Sleeves 牌套

Players may use plastic card sleeves or other protective devices on cards. If a player chooses to use card sleeves, all sleeves must be identical and all cards in his or her deck must be placed in the sleeves in an identical manner. If the sleeves feature holograms or other similar markings, cards must be inserted into the sleeves so these markings appear only on the faces of the cards.
牌手可以在牌上使用塑料制的牌套或其他保护用设施来保护牌。 如果牌手决定使用牌套,则该牌手套牌中的所有牌都必须使用相同的牌套,并以相同的方式装入牌套中。 若牌套上有镭射标示或类似的记号,则在把牌装入牌套时,必须使得该些记号只出现在牌面一侧。

During a match, a player may request that a judge inspect an opponent’s card sleeves. The judge may disallow the card sleeves if he or she believes they are marked, worn, or otherwise in a condition or of a design that interferes with shuffling or game play. In the interest of efficiency, the judge may choose to delay any change of sleeves until the end of the match.
在对局进行过程中,牌手可以要求裁判检查对手的牌套。 如果裁判认为牌手的牌套被作了记号、已磨损,或是出于其他会影响到洗牌或游戏进行的状态,他可以不允许牌手使用该牌套。 基于效率考虑,裁判可选择延迟到对局结束后才让牌手更换牌套。

Competitive and Professional Rules Enforcement Level tournaments impose additional restrictions on sleeves. Highly reflective backs are not allowed. Sleeves with hologram patterns across some or all of the sleeve front or back are not allowed. Sleeves with artwork on their backs may be subjected to additional scrutiny, especially if there is no solid border around the edges.
「竞争」和「专业」级别的比赛对牌套有额外的限制要求。 具有背面高度反光的不得使用。在正面或背面的一部分或全部具有镭射标示的不得使用。 背面有图案的牌套可能需进行额外复查,尤其是侧边未使用单一颜色者。

When using sleeves on double-faced cards, sleeves must be completely opaque.
如果要以装入牌套的方式来利用双面牌,则牌套须为完全不透明。

The Head Judge is the final authority on what sleeves are allowed.
主审在确定何种牌套可用方面具有最终决定权。

MTR 3.11 Marked Cards 有记号的牌

Players are responsible for ensuring that their cards and/or card sleeves are not marked during the tournament. A card or sleeve is considered marked if it bears something that makes it possible to identify the card without seeing its face, including (but not limited to) scratches, discoloration, and bends.
在比赛过程中,牌手有责任确保自己所使用的牌张和/或牌套上没有记号。如果某张牌或牌套上有任何可以无需检视正面即能认出该牌的东西,就会被算作「有记号」,这包括刮痕、变色,以及折痕。

If a player’s cards are sleeved, the cards must be examined while in the sleeves to determine if they are marked. Players should use care when sleeving their decks and should randomize their decks prior to sleeving them to reduce the possibility of cards becoming marked with a pattern. Players should also keep in mind that cards or sleeves may become worn and potentially marked through play during a tournament.
如果牌手的牌装在牌套中,则在检查它们是否有记号时也要装上牌套来检查。牌手在装牌套时应当特别留意,并且应先让套牌随机化之后再装上牌套,以降低有记号的牌具备特殊排列规则的可能性。牌手应当注意,在比赛过程中,随着牌张的使用,牌张或牌套有可能受到磨损并有可能被视为做了记号。

The Head Judge has the authority to determine if a card in a player’s deck is marked. Judges may request that a player remove his or her current sleeves or replace any of the deck’s current sleeves immediately, or before the next round.
主审有权判定牌手的套牌中是否含有具记号的牌张。裁判可以要求牌手取下当前所用牌套,或是更换套牌当前所使用的牌套的一部分,并决定该牌手须立即更换还是在下局开始之前更换完毕。

MTR 3.12 Hidden Information 非公开信息

Hidden information refers to the faces of cards and other objects at which the rules of the game and format do not allow you to look.
非公开信息指的是游戏规则及赛制禁止牌手窥视之信息,如牌张及其他物件的正面。

Throughout the match, a draft, and pregame procedures, players are responsible for keeping their cards above the level of the playing surface and for making reasonable efforts to prevent hidden information from being revealed. However, players may choose to reveal their hands or any other hidden information available to them, unless specifically prohibited by the rules. Players must not actively attempt to gain information hidden from them, but are not required to inform opponents who are accidentally revealing hidden information.
在整个对局、轮抽、及游戏前程序的过程中,牌手有责任将自己所有的牌保持在游戏平面之上,并尽力防止自己的非公开信息被公开。然而,除有规则明令禁止之外,牌手可选择展示其手牌或公开自己知悉的非公开信息。牌手不得主动尝试去获取自己不应知道的非公开信息,但在对手无意间透露了非公开信息的情况下,亦无需就此提醒对手。

MTR 3.13 Tapped/Flipped Cards 已横置/已倒转的牌

If a card must be tapped or flipped, it must be turned approximately 90 degrees (tapped) or 180 degrees (flipped), whichever is appropriate.
若必须横置或倒转一张牌,则牌手须根据相应动作将牌转动大约90度(横置)或180度(倒转)。

MTR 3.14 Graveyard Order 坟墓场的顺序

In formats involving only cards from Urza’s Saga™ and later, players may change the order of their graveyard at any time. A player may not change the order of an opponent’s graveyard.
在只使用克撒传及于其后发行的系列之赛制中,牌手可调整其坟墓场中牌的顺序。 牌手不得改变其对手坟墓场的顺序。

MTR 3.15 Sideboard 备牌

A sideboard is a group of additional cards the player may use to modify his or her deck between games of a match. The player may use these cards in his or her main deck during all games after the first one in a match.
备牌是一组不属于牌手套牌之内的额外牌张。在一局对局中两盘游戏之间,牌手可利用其备牌里的牌来变更其套牌的组成。牌手可在一局对局中的第一盘游戏之后在自己的主牌中使用这些牌。

Before each game begins, players must present their sideboard (if any) face down. Opponents may count the number of cards in their opponent’s sideboard at any time. Players are not required to reveal how many cards they have swapped from their main deck to their sideboard and do not have to swap one for one. Other items (token cards, double-faced card represented in the deck by a checklist card, etc.) should be kept separate from the sideboard during game play.
在每盘游戏开始之前,牌手必须将自己的备牌(若有)以面朝下的方式呈示于对手。牌手可随时清点其对手备牌的张数。牌手不需告知对手自己在套牌和备牌之间交换了几张牌,且不需一一对应交换。 在游戏过程中,应保证其他物品(衍生物牌、套牌中使用列表牌代表的双面牌等等)与备牌之间有显著区隔。

During a game, players may look at their own sideboard, keeping it clearly distinguishable from other cards at all times. If a player gains control of another player, he or she may not look at that player’s sideboard, nor may he or she have that player access his or her sideboard.
于游戏进行的过程当中,牌手可检视自己的备牌,但须保证属于备牌的牌与其他的卡牌之间有明显区隔。如果某牌手获得了其他牌手的操控权,他不得检视后者的备牌,也不得要求后者查看其备牌。

The deck and sideboard must each be returned to their original compositions before the first game of each match.
在每局的第一盘游戏开始之前,牌手必须将自己的套牌与备牌还原至各自的原始组成。

Restrictions on the composition and use of a sideboard can be found in the deck construction rules for a particular format type.
关于备牌之组成和使用的要求与限制,请参见相应赛制的套牌构成规则。

If a penalty causes a player to lose the first game in a match before that game has begun, or the first game is intentionally drawn before any cards are played, neither player may use cards from his or her sideboard for the next game in the match. If players restart a game due to an in-game effect, the composition of their decks must remain the same for the restarted game.
若出现了以下两种情况之一,双方牌手均不得在该局对局的次盘游戏中使用备牌:(1)在游戏开始之前,便有牌手因处罚而输掉了该局中的第一盘游戏;或(2)双方牌手未使用任何牌就已约和第一盘游戏。 若有牌手因游戏中效应之故重新开始了游戏,则双方牌手的套牌组成在这盘重新开始的游戏中应保持不变。

Certain cards refer to “a (card or cards) from outside the game.” In tournament play, these are cards in that player’s sideboard.
某些牌会提及「在游戏外由你拥有的牌」。在比赛中,「在游戏外由你拥有的牌」指该牌手备牌里的牌。